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文章分類:Essay代寫案例? ? 文章關鍵詞:Essay代寫案例

文章導讀:本文是一篇英國Essay代寫案例范文,題目為:British utilities,這篇Essay主要討論了英國的公用事業。英國的公用事業在近兩百年里經歷了兩次大的轉型,基本上做到保護了公眾的利益...
  本文是一篇英國Essay代寫案例范文,題目為:British utilities,這篇Essay主要討論了英國的公用事業。英國的公用事業在近兩百年里經歷了兩次大的轉型,基本上做到保護了公眾的利益,保障了私有財產不可侵犯的原則的施行,并且保護了國有資產,防止其流失,其轉型過程中的公正性原則得到了體現。然而,英國的這兩次大的轉型,也存在著一定的局限。

  How to take into account the interests of all parties,realize the stable change of ownership and guarantee the fairness of decision-making and operation in the process of economic system reform,especially in the restructuring of state-owned enterprises,is a widely concerned issue in China's political and academic circles at present.
  Looking back,Britain has experienced a process of continuous exploration in the management of public utilities.The invisible hand and the visible hand have played their respective roles at different stages.British city public utilities,from private began in the 19th century,after 19th century middle lobe of municipal process,especially the famously Birmingham"municipal socialism"utility operations,to the nationalization of the 1940 s,the public utilities of Britain gradually separated from the general industrial pure pursuit of profit to,take care to its public welfare goals.Mrs Thatcher's wave of privatisations once again sold city utilities to the private sector.In this seemingly circular process of development,there have been two public utility transitions:from private to state,from state to private.So what are the lessons to be learned from these two transitions?Is the decision and operation of its transformation fair?How to be fair?What's wrong with it?Is there any reference for us?
  Urban public utilities are infrastructure industries and their activities that are generally provided to the public and have certain public welfare,mainly including quasi-public goods such as water,electricity and gas.They are playing an indispensable and important role in economic and social development.However,at the beginning of urban development,people lacked the understanding of its public welfare.Only after receiving the troubles of urban environmental problems and the lessons of the epidemic,people gradually realized the particularity of public utilities.After cholera swept through 431 British cities in 1831,killing more than 30,000 people,it was recognized that the disease was linked to unclean water sources,so drinking water became the first urban government-run project.The municipal government and municipal council elected in accordance with the municipal autonomous organs act of 1835 have gradually become an important carrier of the development of public utilities.From 1846 to 1865,51 municipalities built or purchased private water companies.In the 1850s and 1860s,gas city camp became a new hotspot;By the end of the 19th century,power city camps began to be put on the agenda.This was called"gas and water socialism",and Fabian called it"municipal socialism".
  After World War I,there were calls for regional cooperation among utilities.The electricity improvement commission and the central ministry of electricity set out to build a national and regional power network.During the harsh period of the World War II,state intervention succeeded in getting the British through,so state intervention in economic life remained a new"tradition".In 1947,the conservative industrial charter declared privatization to be destructive.Thus,the labor government in 1945-1951 nationalized the public utilities sector,further increasing the concentration of urban public utilities.By 1950,the government had nationalized most of the enterprises concerned with national economy and people's livelihood.
  After Margaret thatcher came to power in 1979?In order to eliminate the stubborn disease of stagflation,xun implemented the industrial economic policy of promoting market competition through privatization.Contracting out services or goods needed by government departments,state-owned hospitals and educational institutions to private enterprises to improve the competitiveness of British industry and stimulate economic growth.Privatisation of utilities,first through the sale of state housing,then through monopolies such as bt and bg,followed by the privatisation of electricity and water companies.Since 1979,more than 1 million state-owned homes have been sold to private companies or individuals.By the end of 1991,major utilities,such as gas,water and electricity,were privatized successively.By the time the conservative party stepped down in 1997,British railways,British coal and London transport were privatized gradually.The privatization of public utilities of thatcher government was mainly realized by the sale of state-owned assets.Specific methods include:selling large state-owned public utilities through the stock exchange;the sale of small state-owned utilities to a single private company;the sale of state-owned utilities to a group of investors;Then there is the sale of utility assets to corporate management or staff.
  After reviewing the transformation process of British public utilities,they basically follow similar principles to ensure the fairness of the transformation process.
  The first is to implement the transformation of public utilities according to law,which is a basic principle.In the first stage of municipal operation of public utilities,the municipal government and municipal council elected in accordance with the act of municipal autonomous organs of 1835 acted as the main carriers of municipal operation of public utilities.The law provides that the city government consists of an elected city council,a mayor,and a city council.Among them,the city council is the authority of the town's autonomous body.Its members are elected by the votes of all adult men in the city who pay local taxes and have the right to live for three years.The discussion of the city council is open to the public.In addition,the municipal government financial disclosure,municipal revenue and tax must be used for local residents.This increases the transparency of municipal government's fiscal revenue and operation,guarantees the fairness of public utilities'decision-making and operation process,and helps to reduce the appearance of corruption.In the middle of the 19th century,city councils debated whether to run water,gas or electricity.In the process of purchasing private companies,marketization is generally adopted to compensate the owners of public utilities,thus smoothly realizing the market operation of public utilities.In the 19th century,for example,the construction of the middle and lower leaves of the city hall,the architectural style,architectural address,budget,bidding,etc.are all carried out in the open principle.It can be seen that public utilities are accompanied by democratic and open decision-making process and operational procedures.
  After the World War II,the nationalization process was regulated and guided by parliamentary legislation,and the public utilities were redeemed by economic leverage.When the labor party came to power,it did not have a clear plan for public ownership,and the law on nationalization was almost a blank,which determined that legislation was the first priority at that time.Within two years,parliament carried out a great deal of legislative work,passing a large number of laws and regulations,such as the banking act of England,the nationalization act of the coal industry,the white paper on national aviation,the telegraph and telephone act,the industrial distribution act,and the urban and rural planning act.At the same time,the Labour government nationalised sectors that were,or had been,ripe for public property and management in the national interest,starting with the bank of England and extending to coal,civil aviation,railways,transport,steel and electricity.In the practice of nationalizing a public utility,the general procedure is to appoint a central management department,which will take over the private enterprise and make it a state-owned company,and then the state-owned company will operate and manage it in accordance with the detailed legislation.By the country establish corresponding economy entity to regard the person that person of property droit as expression,they are in charge of management as the agent of the government,the government makes policy guidance only.On the financial side,nationalisation has been done by buying shares with the state,for example by buying shares in coal miners for£164.6 billion.
  In the privatization wave of the conservative government,there are also progressive decision-making procedures,perfect laws and sound management.The first step is feasibility study and decision making.First,private researchers,commercial Banks and management consultants will conduct feasibility studies on the privatization of state-owned enterprises and explain the possibility of privatization to the competent government departments.Propose alternative means and preconditions for sale,and finally decide the principles of transfer and implementation by the competent government departments.The second step is preparation.In terms of organization,a strong management and sales team will be formed with the help of the bank to introduce and explain the methods of privatization to the public;In terms of legislative work,we cleaned up and revised the previous legislation concerning state-owned enterprises,revised the administrative authority of the government and formulated some new rules,which were passed by the parliament and relevant government departments.The third step is to implement the operation.Here,fairness is mainly reflected in:re-establishing corporate balance sheets,forming asset sales advisory groups,and deciding on the details of stock sales.
  In a word,in the several transformations of British public utilities,legislation often serves as an important means to reflect the fairness of public utilities in the restructuring process,so that the transformation process of public utilities has laws and evidences to follow.Not only was the nationalization between 1945 and 1951 based on a great deal of legislation,but also the process of public utilities market operation in the mid-19th century was carried out in accordance with the law.After the reform,the municipal government and the municipal council have the power to formulate local laws and regulations.In terms of municipal management of private tap water,gas and electric power,the municipal council makes decisions and implements them in accordance with local laws and regulations.It can be said that with the improvement of British law and legal system,the transformation of British public utilities is increasingly based on sound laws.If at the beginning of nationalization,the labor government was just crossing the river by feeling the stones and carrying out the legislation of nationalization in a hurry,then the conservative party's numerous measures of privatization had relatively abundant time to study,deliberate and prepare for the legislation.
  The second principle is to implement effective supervision in the transformation process of public utilities to ensure their public welfare.Without strong,comprehensive and well-regulated regulation,privatization could be a disaster for consumers,especially low-income families.Privatization does not mean leaving things as they are.In fact,for some natural monopoly industries,such as telecommunications,electricity and natural gas,the government cannot completely leave them alone.The government must solve the public welfare problems after privatization.Therefore privatization with the system of government legislation as the pilot,so that privatization has a legal basis and implementation procedures.In terms of macro control,in order to standardize the management of public utilities and avoid public utilities becoming a tool for private capital to chase monopoly profits,great importance is attached to the spirit of separating government from enterprise and social supervision in the setting of urban public utilities management institutions.To clarify government functions:to formulate regulations on the administration of public utilities,to issue and modify business licenses,to formulate and supervise the prices of public utilities,etc.;The specific operation activities of urban public utilities are completely operated by public enterprises independently.In terms of social supervision,first,according to relevant legislation,a complete network of public utility customer service committees has been established throughout the country to conduct all-round supervision over enterprises and provide objective information sources for government departments to make decisions.Second,the hearing system should be established and constantly improved.All kinds of public utility systems and programs should be published on the mass media and the Internet,and public opinions should be widely solicited and repeatedly revised accordingly,so as to be easily accepted by the society.In the process of privatization,the British government gradually explored some ways to take specific measures to regulate them.Each of the privatised utilities,known as natural monopolies,has created a separate regulatory body,such as the office of telecommunications and the office of natural gas.These regulatory bodies regulate natural monopoly industries in accordance with the authority granted by law.For example,in the process of privatization of the power industry,the first step is to decompose the power industry into four links of power generation,transformation,transmission and supply,and introduce the competition mechanism.In terms of electricity generation,the former national electricity production council will be reorganized into the national power company,the power company,the nuclear power company,the two independent companies in Scotland and north and south,and a number of small power companies will be allowed to compete in the market.In terms of power transformation and transmission,the price formula is determined.In terms of power supply,12 regional power companies have been established,which are directly oriented to customers.Regulated departments must also provide relevant information to the office of control.On water,the water act was enacted in 1989,the water office and the national rivers authority were established,and 10 regional water companies were allowed to be privatized.The wofo is completely independent of the business and has great powers to issue business licences,modify the terms of licences and regulate prices,quality and investment.Therefore,in the privatization process of public utilities,the government often supervises the operation of private enterprises from the aspects of laws and regulations,institutional Settings,etc.,so as to protect the public interest and realize the requirements of public welfare.Britain's current prime minister Tony Blair believes that the market itself is neutral and an effective means of distributing goods,but he also believes that it is dangerous to let the market go completely,and that it should be monitored and regulated.It can be seen that the privatization of British public utilities did not give up the functions of the government,but allowed the absolute domination of the market profit motive.
  The third principle is that the British government and parliament protect private interests and prevent infringement of private property from all aspects of law.In the 19th century,when public utilities were being marketed,the city council did not"expropriate"or"encroach"on private enterprises.Instead,it paid large sums of money to buy private companies in the spirit of a market economy.In the subsequent nationalization,nationalization was not only a slogan,but also involved important economic and social changes of all social strata.From the precise scope of nationalisation,to the restructuring of the financial sector,to compensation for private shareholders,to price policy,to relations with consumers and so on,these are broad and difficult issues that cannot be easily resolved in a short period of time.Therefore,in this process,the principle of preventing the infringement of private property was also adopted to implement the system of compensation for the former business owners,and the stock prices were generally higher than the market prices,for which the government paid considerable fees.The government also pays interest and principal on government bonds issued to former business owners.From the point of view of protecting private property from encroachment,these measures are undoubtedly in place and guarantee the smooth transformation of public utilities.At the same time,the nationalization process,since it is done on the stock exchange,is basically a fair trade.During the transition to privatization,the evaluation of state-owned assets and the sale of state-owned assets are all conducted by independent institutions according to law,thus basically ensuring the national interests are not harmed.


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